PANORAMA OF THE HUDSON RIVER

By William Wade
1848

The view presented on leaving the city of New York, on our voyage up the river to Albany, is grand and extensive; embracing in the direction of the sea, parts of Long Island, and Staten Island, and the Narrows, with the fortifications on the two former, commanding the latter, and the strong fortifications guarding the approach tothe city upon Governor's, Bedlows and Ellis islands. The bay of New York is spreads to the southward, and is about eight miles long, and from one and a half to five and a half broad. It is one of the finest harbours in the world, generally open for vessels at all seasons of the year, the currents being so strong that the most severe winters rarely obstruct it with ice for more than a few days. Governor's Island contains seventy acres of ground, and is distant three thousand two hundred feet from the city at the Battery. Castle William, on the west side of the island, is a round tower six hundred feet in circumference and sixty feet high, with three tiers of guns. Fort Columbus is on the highest point of the island, and on the east side is a battery to defend the entrance into Buttermilk channel. As the steamboat leaves her mooring for the bosom of the majestic stream, a scene of indescribable beauty is presented to the eye of those who love to "crowd on the incident." On the west is the Jersey shore, with its beautiful settlements and cultivated fields,-its quiet contrasting oddly with the busy hum arising from the magnificent city on the east,-with its great forests of masts, and its architectural masses, here and there relieved by towering spires. On leaving the wharves, Jersey city, directly opposite the lower part of New York, attracts the attention. It is a beautiful town, of about three thousand one hundred inhabitants. Here commences the New Jersey railroad, which is continued to Philadelphia; and the Paterson and Hudson railroad, with its fine depot; and the Morris canal, one hundred and one miles long, connecting the Delaware and Hudson rivers, terminates here with a large basin.

A mile north from Jersey city is Hoboken, a fine town of nearly a hundred houses. It contains fine grounds, beautifully laid out, called the Elysian fields, much frequented from the city in the summer season. Four miles from New York, on the left side of the river, is a high wooded cliff, remarkable for the handsome villa on its summit. At the foot of this rock, which bears the name of Weehawken, is a spot famed as the death-place of one of the most consummate statesmen and valiant soldiers America has produced. Here, in mortal combat with Aaron Burr, fell the incorruptible patriot, Alexander Hamilton, July 12, 1804.

Two miles further north is Bull's Ferry, a place of considerable resort. On the right hand, five miles from the City Hall, and on York Island, is the scattered village of Bloomingdale, presenting to the curious eye a pleasant aspect in the Orphan Asylum, with its green lawn extending to the water's edge, and surrounded by a grove. Three miles further up the island-eight miles from the City Hall-is the Lunatic Asylum, a stately pile, standing on elevated ground. Half a mile north of the Asylum, is the village of Manhattanville, having a convenient landing and wharf, and containing about eighty houses, with five hundred inhabitants. A mile and a half east of this is the village of Harlem.

The next object of notice after passing Manhattanville, and the highest point on New York Island is Fort Washington, two hundred and thirty-eight feet above the river. In 1776, when the British held the city of New York, this post, with Fort Lee, directly opposite, were vainly supposed to be sufficient to keep the communication up the Hudson in the possession of the Americans; but after sustaining an assault and siege, in which the enemy lost nearly a thousand men, the garrison, two thousand militia, surrendered, November 16, 1776. The fall of Fort Washington involved the evacuation of Fort Lee. We witness now a very different state of feeling from that which prevailed in this region in the times of the Revolution, when colonels made drummers and fifers of their sons, and ate with them at table; when General Putnam could be seen riding about in his shirt sleeves, with his hanger over his open vest; when his nephew, Colonel Putnam, carried his rations of beef to his tent in his fingers, to "show the officers a good lesson of humility; when a little squat officer, whose odd garb and uncouth deportment excited the curiosity of the British officers, answered in reply to a question concerning his rank, I am a keppun, Sir.

The site of Fort Lee is on the brow of the Palisades, a short distance from the river and three hundred feet above it. The Palisades are a range of rocks, from twenty to five hundred and fifty feet in height, extending a distance of about twenty miles. In some places they rise almost perpendicularly from the shore, and form, for several miles in extent, a solid wall of rock, diversified only by an occasion fishing hut on the beach at their base, or wood slides down their sides, and sometimes by an interval of a few acres of arable land, affording an opening for a landing-place, and a steep road leading to their top. On the opposite side of the river the land is varied by hill and dale, cultivated fields and woods, with cottages and country seats.

Thirteen miles north of the city of New York, Spuyten Duyvel creek flows into the Hudson. This stream, by connecting with the Harlem river, forms New York Island and separating it from Westchester county. Kingsbridge, hallowed as one of the battle grounds of America, crosses this creek a mile from its mouth, on the great road from New York to Albany. On the north bank, near the mouth is the site of Fort Independence. Here commences a succession of beautifully situated country residences, facing the Palisades, the shore itself being marked by many ridges and intervening narrow valleys, running back to the Highlands which divide the tributaries of the Hudson from those of the East river and Long Island Sound. These highlands, as you advance north, grow more elevated and rocky, enlarge themselves into the Fishkill mountains and the Taghkanic group, and finally attain the highest grandeur as the Green mountains of Vermont.

Phillipsburg or Yonkers, distant sixteen miles from New York, is a thriving village of three thousand inhabitants: much resorted to in the warm season by the citizens of New York. It commands a fine view of the Hudson and the Palisades Hastings, three miles above Yonkers, is a convenient stopping-place. Dobbs Ferry is a small settlement with a steamboat wharf, the name of which is not unfamiliar to the student of American history. It communicates by a ferry with the opposite shore at the foot of the Palisades, a little north of the boundary line between New Jersey and New York. From this point, both banks of the Hudson belong to the State of New York.

Piermont, on the left bank of the Hudson, twenty-four miles from the city of New York, is the terminus of the New York and Erie railroad. It is remarkable for a pier, more than a mile long, extending from the shore to the channel of the river. This pier, with the mountain which terminates the Palisades, near by, has given its name to the town. Some three miles from the Hudson is the old village of Tappan, memorable as having been once the head-quarters of Washington, and the place where Andre was executed, October 2, 1780. A small heap of stones thrown together, with an upright stake, is the only monument to mark the place of his death. The following extract from an eye-witness's account of Andre's execution, is taken from the New York Historical Collections. "Not many minutes after he took his stand on the coffin, the executioner stepped into the wagon with a halter in his hand, on one end of which was what the soldiers in those days called a hangman's knot, which he attempted to put over the head and around the neck of Andre, but by a sudden movement of his hand this was prevented. Andre took off the handkerchief from his neck, unpinned his shirt collar, and deliberately took the end of the halter, put it over his head, and placed the knot directly under his right ear, and drew it very snuglv to his neck; he then took from his coat-pocket a handkerchief and tied it over his eyes. This done, the officer that commanded spoke in rather a loud voice, and said that his arms must be tied. Andre at once pulled down the handkerchief which he had just put over his eyes, and drew from his pocket a second one, and gave it to the executioner, and then replaced his handkerchief. His arms were tied just above the elbows, and behind the back: the rope was then made fast to the gallows overhead. The wagon was very suddenly drawn from under the gallows, which, together with the length of the rope, gave him a most tremendous swing back and forth, but in a few moments he hung entirely still." In August, 1831, the remains of this gallant officer were disinterred, and carried to England by J. Buchanan, the British consul.

From Piermont, northward to Teller's Point, a distance of ten miles, the width of the river is increased to three miles, forming Tappan Sea or Tappan Bay. On the eastern shore of this sea, in the midst of a beautiful landscape, is Van Tassel House, the favorite residence of Washington Irving. About one mile north of this is a village named in honour of our distinguished countryman. Next comes Tarrytown, with its one thousand inhabitants, twenty-eight miles from New. York. A quarter of a mile north of this village is the spot where Major Andre was captured. We have above given the closing scene of his captivity; from the same source we obtain the following sketch of the first On the 23d of September, 1780, three militia-men, Williams, Vanwart, and Paulding, were going to see some relations about twenty miles below. They seated themselves in some shrubbery beside the road, and commenced to play at cards. Suddenly their attention was arrested by the clattering of a horse's hoofs over the wooden planks of a bridge, which crossed a creek near by. Leaving their cards they approached the road, where they saw a gentleman riding towards them, seated on a large brown horse, which was afterward observed to be marked near the shoulder with the initials U. S. A. The rider was a light, trimbuilt man, about five feet seven inches in height, with a bold military countenance and dark eyes, and was dressed in a round hat, blue surtout crimson coat, with pantaloons and vest of nankeen. As he neared them the three cocked their muskets and aimed at the rider, who immediately checked his horse, and the following conversation ensued: Andre. " Gentlemen, I hope you are of our party."
Paulding. "What party!"
Andre. "The lower party."
Paulding. " We are."
Andre. "I am a British officer: I have been up the country on particular business, and would not wish to be detained a single moment."

He thereon pulled out a gold watch as an evidence that he was a gentleman. Paulding remarked, "We are Americans."

Andre. "God bless my soul! A man must do any thing to get along. I am a continental officer, going down to Dobb's Ferry to get information from below."

He then drew out his pass from Arnold, in which he was designated by the name of Anderson. The suspicions of the patriots were however aroused, and they ordered him to dismount. Andre told them that they would bring themselves into trouble. " We care not for that," was the reply. They took him down ten or fifteen rods beside a run of water, and Williams searched his clothes. He found but eighty dollars in continental money. At length he ordered him to take off his boots. At this he changed colour. Williams drew off the left boot first, and Paulding seizing it, exclaimed, "My God, here it is!" In it were found three half sheets of written paper, enveloped in a blank half sheet marked, "Contents, West Point." Paulding again exclaimed, " My God, he's a spy!" On pulling off the other boot, a similar package was found.

Andre then attempted to purchase his release, gradually augmenting his offers to his horse equipage, ten thousand guineas, and as many dry goods as they wished, which they cut short the negotiation by informing him that "it did not signify for him to make offers for he should not go." So treachery was foiled.

No monument marks the spot where this scene occurred, though it is well known to the inhabitants. The tree under which the spy was captured was struck by lightning on the day when the news of the traitor Arnold's death was received at Tarrytown. There is a Dutch Reformed Church at this village, one hundred and sixty-two years old, and a graveyard much older. Immediately north of Tarrytown is the Sleepy Hollow, made for ever famous by Irving's legend. His hero, the Yankee pedagogue, Ichabod Crane, led the choir in the old church above mentioned ; and back of it was the dreadful ravine where he encountered the Headless Horseman.

Nyack is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the river, at the widest part of Tappan Sea. It contains more than one hundred houses and eight hundred inhabitants. Two or three miles north-west of Nyack is Rockland Lake, a body of the purest water, five miles in circumference, two hundred feet above the level of the Hudson. It abounds with fine fish; but is chiefly valuable for its ice, and from it the city of New York is chiefly supplied with that article. The ice-houses are many of them built on the bank of the river. On the east bank of the Hudson, thirty-three miles from New York, is Sing Sing, a pleasant village containing about two thousand, five hundred inhabitants. Its site is elevated and uneven. It contains Mount Pleasant Academy for boys, with a fine marble edifice, and a similar institution for young ladies. An object of much interest here is the Croton Aqueduct Bridge. Sing Sing furnishes great quantities of fine building marble, the quarries being chiefly wrought by the convicts of the State prison, located here. The prison is situated half a mile south of the village. The main building is four hundred and eighty-four feet long and forty-four feet wide, five stories high, and contains a thousand cells. In front and rear are various workshops, with the keeper's house, a chapel, hospital, kitchen, and storehouses. There is a separate marble building. of the Ionic order, for female convicts, with well-furnished apartments for the matrons. One hundred and thirty acres of land are attached to the whole. This prison was built in consequence of the insufficiency of the Auburn State Prison to accommodate each prisoner with a separate cell. In 1824, the agent of the Auburn prison was Elam Lynds, a man of great firmness and energy of will. The legislature having passed a law providing for the erection of another prison at Sing Sing, Captain Lynds came there with one hundred convicts, who immediately commenced building a prison for themselves. It was finished in 1829; the fifth story is an addition to the original building and was made in 1831.

The origin of the name of Sing Sing has been variously given. We subjoin two accounts. The first derives it from the Chinese Tsing Sing, the title of a celebrated governor of a Chinese city. It is said to have been brought to this country by a Dutch settler who had traded with China. According to the second account, the name comes from Indian words Ossin Sing- the place of stone.

The village of Sparta joins Sing Sing on the north, and a mile beyond, immediately above the confluence of the Croton and Hudson rivers, Croton or Teller's Point separates Tappan Sea from Haverstraw Bay. The point, famous for Underhill's grape-yard, projects about a mile southerly into the river. Immediately opposite, on the west bank of the river, rises Verdreitje's Hook, six hundred and sixty-eight feet high. For six miles north from Teller's Point, the river is again expanded to a width of from two to three miles. This expansion is known by the name of Haverstraw Bay. On its west bank is the town of Haverstraw or Warren, thirty-six miles north from New York. Near Haverstraw is Smith's house, where Andre was for a time concealed on his way to meet Arnold, at his residence near Sugarloaf Mount. He landed in a batteau at the Hook below, stopped till midnight at Smith's house, whence he was rowed to Verplank's Point in a boat. At the head of Haverstraw Bay are Stony and Verplank's points, celebrated in the annals of America. The former is on the west side of the river, the latter nearly opposite, about forty miles from New York. Stony Point is a little rough promontory, now crowned by the lighthouse on its summit. It was stronly fortified during the Revolution, and completely commanded the approach up the river. The Americans commenced the works erected on the two points, and Sir Henry Clinton determined to drive them away. Early in June, 1779, the forts were attacked and taken without much resistance, owing to the unfinished state of the works. Clinton left considerable garrisons in them, with orders to complete the fortifications at Stony Point as quickly as possible, and fell down the river to New York. He soon after sent the tory Governor, Tryon, with a squadron, to devastate the towns on the coast of Connecticut. With a view of forcing Clinton to recall this marauder, General Washington undertook a series of brilliant exploits on the Hudson. Of these the first was Wayne's famous attack upon Stony Point. This was made on the 16th of July, 1779. In Wayne's official account of this glorious affair, he says that "at twelve o'clock the assault was to begin on the right and left flanks of the enemy's works, whilst Major Murphy amused them in front; but a deep morass covering their whole front, and at this time overflowed by the tide, together with other obstructions, rendered the approaches more difficult than was at first apprehended, so that it was about twenty minutes after twelve before the assault began; previously to which I placed myself at the head of the right column, and gave the troops the most pointed orders not to fire on any account, but place their whole de pendence on the bayonet, which order was literally and faithfully obeyed. Neither the deep morass, the formidable and double rows of abatis, nor the strong works in front and flank, could damp the ardour of the troops, who, in the face of an incessant and most tremendous fire of musketry, and from cannon loaded with grape shot, forced their way at the point of the bayonet through every obstacle, both columns meeting at the centre of the enemy's work nearly at the same instant. Too much praise cannot be given to Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury, who struck the enemy's standard with his own hand, and to Major Stewart, who commanded the advance parties, for their brave and prudent conduct."

Colonel Lee says, somewhere in his Memoirs, that Wayne had a constitutional attachment for the sword, a cast of character which acquired strength from indulgence, and from the temper of the gallant troops who followed his standard. Bold and daring, they were impatient and refractory, they would always prefer an appeal to the bayonet to a toilsome march. The storming of Stony Point shows his fearless character no less than his daring attack, at the head of eight hundred men, upon the whole of Cornwallis's army at James city. His bravery amounted almost to rashness, and his devoted soldiers not unaptly named him "Mad Anthony" Though mad he was also modest, for his official despatch almost suppresses entirely the part which he himself took in the attack upon Stony Point. He shared the danger equally with the meanest soldier, and was near losing his life by a ball which struck him on the head, and inflicted what was at first supposed to be a mortal wound. But he earnestly requested his aids to carry him forward, because if die he must, it should be in the fort. Fortune favours the brave: the general was but slightly stunned, and the sight of the stars and stripes waving over the cross of St. George, quickly restored him.

Congress acknowledged the merit of Wayne in this affair, by a vote of thanks and a gold medal. It is generally considered the most brilliant feat of the Revolutionary war.

We pass on to Caldwell's Landing, where the large boats first stop on their passage up the river. It is at the entrance of the "Highlands," and is connected by a steam ferry with Peekskill, on the east side of the river. The Highlands or Fishkill mountains, which first appear about forty miles above New York, attract notice from their grandeur and sublimity, as well as from their association with some of the most important movements of the Revolution. The chain is about sixteen miles in width, and extends along both sides of the Hudson to the distance of twenty miles. Dr. Mitchell has advanced a theory in regard to these Highlands in connection with the Hudson, which has found an able advocate in the talented Mrs. Phelps of Albany. According to their view, this thick and solid barrier in ancient times impeded the course of the water, and raised a lake which might vie with those on the northern frontier of our country. The waters of this lake, they urge, wrought by constant wearing, or a sudden eruption of nature, have severed the mountain chain, and rushed onward to the bosom of the ocean at New York Bay. The theory is by no means inconsistent with the highest authorities in geology.

Peekskill is a fine town of two thousand inhabitants, containing eight churches, a bank, several foundries and tanneries and some three hundred other buildings. It carries on a flourishing trade with New York, and contains objects worthy of the attention of the traveller. 'I'he Peekskill Academy on Oak Hill is extremely well situated for purposes of education; the site being one of the most healthy on the Hudson, and commanding a delightful view of the noble Dunderberg and other mountains around.

Peekskill is the birth-place of John Paulding, the patriot farmer, whose conduct in the affair of Major Andre has been recorded by a monument, a marble pyramid fifteen feet high. It is inclosed in an iron railing twelve feet square. On the south side is the following inscription: " Here repose the mortal remains of
John Paulding
who died on the 18th day of February, 1818,
in the 60th year of his age.
On the morning of the 23d of September, 1780,
accompanied by two young farmers of the county
of Westchester,
(whose names will one day be recorded
on their own deserved monuments,)
He intercepted the British Spy, Andre
Poor Himself,
He disdained to acquire wealth by sacrificing
His Country.
Rejecting the temptation of great rewards,
He conveyed his prisoner to the American camp,
and
By this act of noble self-denial,
The treason of Arnold was detected;
The designs of the enemy baffled;
West Point and the American army saved,
and these United States
Now by the grace of God, free and independent,
Rescued from imminent peril."

On the north side is the inscription,
"The Corporation
of the
City of New York
erect this tomb
as a memorial
raised to
Public Gratitude."

Other inscriptions appear on the remaining sides.

Two miles from the village is a dwelling, occupied by Washington when the American army was encamped here. On Oak Hill, near the flourishing academy before mentioned, stands a venerable oak tree, on which were hung in the days of the Revolution, the two spies, Strang and Palmer. It was in the case of the latter that Putnam the warrior, "born a hero," wrote his characteristic note to Governor Tryon. His iron will was not to be changed by the threats of the British governor, or by the dictates of his humane heart, at the entreaties of Palmer's wife. The letter was as follows:

"Sir-Nathan Palmer, a lieutenant in your king's service, was taken in my camp as a spy; he was tried as a spy, and condemned as a spy; and you may rest assured, sir, he shall be hanged as a spy. I have the honour to be, &c.
ISRAEL PUTNAM.
P. S.- Afternoon.-He is hanged."

It is a curious fact that the man who turned off Palmer at the gallows, afterwards married his widow. It was a singular "reward of merit."

A traditionary circumstance connected with the capture of Andre, is related in a popular volume, " Letters about the Hudson," which would seem to have occurred in the neighbourhood of Peekskill. About the time when Andre was bargaining for West Point with the traitorous Arnold, a farmer was engaged in making cider at a mill, on the east bank of the Hudson. While thus occupied, two young men, Sherwood and Peterson, approached with muskets on their shoulders, exchanged salutations, refreshed themselves with his cider, and then sat down on a log near by. Their attention was earnestly directed to a part of Haverstraw bay, known as "the Mother’s Lap" The farmer noticing their earnest gaze, desired to know what alarmed them.

"Speak low," said Sherwood, "the red-coats are about us."
" Where?"
"Yonder, just within the Lap," said Peterson; "go back to your mill, and Sherwood and I will crawl to the bank of the river, and give the red-coats a shot."

They drew near the margin of the river, took shelter behind a rock, and fired upon an English gun-boat, containing twenty four sailors, two of whom fell at the discharge. The crew belonged to the Vulture sloop of war, which lay at anchor off Teller's Point. The British had no weapon but a blunderbuss, and were unable to see their enemy. They therefore put off from the shore and rowed back to the Vulture. The young men waited a while in expectation of a reinforcement, but none came. They therefore rejoined the farmer at the mill.

" What luck with the red-coats ?" he inquired.
" Good luck and bad luck; if that's possible," said Peterson.
" How can that be ?"
" Easy enough ; we had the good luck to come off safely, and the bad luck to kill two of the sailors in the boat, whose only crime against us was serving their king."

As they spoke, a man was observed coming down the east bank of the river, just below Collabergh landing, and cautiously examining every thing around him. He had gained the spot nearly opposite where the gun-boat had been stationed, when he observed the men at the mill, and retraced his steps. This man was Major Andre, just returning from his conference with Arnold. He had crossed from the west bank of the river, and had come to meet the gun-boat at the Lap; not finding it he was obliged to travel through Westchester county. Thus was he thrown into the path where he met with Paulding, Williams, and Vanwert, the three humble patriots who scorned the gold which purchased the haughty Arnold.

At Dunderberg Mountain or Caldwell's Landing, what is called the Horse Race commences. This consists of an angle in the river, which for more than a mile, takes a westwardly direction, contracted to a very narrow space between bold and rocky mountains; one of which, Antony's Nose, is eleven hundred and twenty-eight feet high, and is opposite the mouth of Montgomery creek, overlooking forts Montgomery and Clinton.

Two amusing accounts are given of the origin of the name of this mountain. One by the author of "letters about the Hudson," was obtained from General Van Courtlandt, whose residence may be seen at the foot of the mountain. Before the Revolution, a vessel under the command of Captain Hogans, was passing up the river. When immediately opposite the mountain, the mate looked rather quizzically, first at the mountain, then at the captain's nose, which was of an enormous size, and a frequent subject of remark. "What," said the jolly craftsman, "does that look like my nose? call it then, if you please, Antony's Nose." The story was repeated on shore, and the mountain assumed the name, and stands an imperishable monument of the greatness of Captain Antony Hogan’s nose.

Mr. Irving's account is more marvellous, if not more probable. It is derived from the nose of Antony Van Corlear. The Dutch governor was making his first voyage up the Hudson:- "just at this moment, the illustrious sun, breaking in all his splendour from behind one of the high cliffs of the Highlands, did dart one of his most potent beams full upon the refulgent nose of the sounder of brass. The reflection of which shot straightway down, hissing hot into the water, and killed a mighty sturgeon that was sporting beside the vessel! When this astonishing miracle came to be made known to Peter Stuyvesant, he, as may well be supposed, marvelled exceedingly; and as a monument thereof, gave the name of Antony's Nose to a stout promontory in the neighbourhood, and it has continued to be called Antony's Nose ever since."

On the west side of the river as above stated, are the sites of forts Clinton and Montgomery, which, deemed almost impregnable, were erected for the defence of the chevaux-de-frise, boom and chains which obstructed the channel. On the 6th of October, 1777, General Clinton appeared in force on the Hudson river, for the purpose of making his long delayed diversion in favour of Burgoyne. He landed at Verplank’s Point without opposition. On the following morning he passed with two thousand men to Stony Point, leaving one thousand behind him. The feint of landing on Verplank's Point, and leaving a strong detachment there, was intended to deceive Putnam, who had command of the neighbouring country, and who collected from the forts above about two thousand men, and hastened towards Verplank's Point, supposing that Clinton meant to advance through the eastern Highlands, in order to co-operate with Burgoyne by the shortest route.

From Stony Point to Fort Montgomery was only a short distance; but the route which Clinton determined to pursue, in the hope of taking the Americans by surprise, was one of the roughest and most laborious that can be conceived: it was impassable to artillery, and therefore no gus were brought; though they were marching against fortified places. It was a path across the Dunderberg, steep, winding, and so narrow that in many places not more than three men could march abreast. Two hundred resolute Yankees, posted across the path, and on the hills and rocks above it, might have checked and even destroyed the two thousand British; but the daring Putnam was away on the other side of the Hudson, and the garrisons of Forts Montgomery and Clinton never conceived it possible that regular army would take so dangerous a road. The British thus got to the crest of the mountain, and began to descend it on the other side before they were discovered, though they were many hours in performing that toilsome march. At the foot of the mountain the advanced guard stumbled upon an American detachment, which was advancing much too late for the defence of the pass. This detachment quickly retreated to the forts, and destroyed Clinton's hope of capturing them by surprise, at the approach of night; he resolved, however, to go on and trust to his muskets and bayonets. He divided his forces into two columns, one of which he sent under Colonel Campbell against Fort Montgomery, while he advanced in person to storm Fort Clinton. The attacks were made upon the two forts about sunset, at the same time, and precisely as agreed upon. The garrison of Fort Montgomery made a short resistance, in which Colonel Campbell was killed, and then abandoned their works. The other fort was much better defended. It was built upon a rocky ridge, the only approach to which was over a bare open space about a hundred yards long, with a lake on one side, and a precipice and the Hudson on the other. Felled trees had been thrown across this space, so that the enemy could advance neither rapidly nor in order, and the advance was to be made in the mouth of the artillery of the fort, while they had not a single gun to respond or to cover their movement. Clinton ordered them, for the sake of expedition, to rush on without firing to the fortifications, and enter them by the embrasures through which the American guns were pointed. His order was literally obeyed. With a most determined bravery they came on, sometimes on their feet, sometimes crawling on all-fours over the trunks of trees, all the way under a fire such as Americans only can give, until they got to the foot of the works. They had no ladders, no implements of any kind, so they climbed on one another's shoulders up into the embrasures, pushed aside the warm cannon, and charged the garrison with the bayonet. The defence was still gallantly maintained. The garrison, who only numbered between three and four hundred, gradually retired across the rampart, but they rallied at its head. The whole British force was by this time in the fort, and the garrison was dislodged by superior numbers. They retired across the esplanade, and discharged a murderous volley of musketry; but further defence would have been useless, and they soon after submitted. Many, however, escaped under cover of the night by swimming over the creek between the two forts, or mixing with the British soldiers. They lost but three hundred men in all, and of these the prisoners were by far the most numerous class. Governor Clinton, who was in the fort that bore his name, passed the river in a boat, and escaped as did his brother General James Clinton, though wounded in the thigh by a bayonet. At the storming of this fort, Count Grabowsky, a Polish nobleman, who fought for king George, and acted as aid to Sir H. Clinton, was slain. He fell at the foot of the works, having received three wounds. In no instance during the whole war was there more determined resolution exhibited, than in the attack and defence of Fort Clinton.

The enemy had advanced to the charge in the dusk of the evening, and before they had completed their conquest it was night. But the darkness was soon partially dispersed by a most brilliant illumination, which proceeded from two frigates, two galleys, and a sloop, which the Americans had drawn up in a little inlet under the guns of the fort, and to which the crews now set fire, to prevent them from falling into the hands of the conquerors. It was a part of Clinton's plan, that Hotham should have secured this flotilla while he was engaged in storming the forts; but his scheme was baffled by another exercise of the ingenuity and great industry of the Americans, from which he suffered so much during the war.

They had contrived to throw right across the Hudson, there six hundred yards wide, chevaux-de-frise, and, behind them, a most enormous boom, which was strengthened by vast rafts of timber connected by strong cables, and by an immense iron chain. The British shipping were close at hand; but it required time to remove these obstructions; and ships on fire with powder in their holds, and their guns shotted, were too formidable to be approached by any of the men under commodore Hotham. 'Thus they were left to make a brief but magnificent spectacle, and then blow up into the air between the lofty echoing banks of the Hudson. When the boom was removed, Sir James Wallace, with a flying squadron of small frigates, ascended the Hudson still higher, and destroyed several American vessels.

Fifty-two miles from New York, and ninety-three from Albany, is West Point, the seat of the United States Military Academy. The land was ceded to the government of the United States by the state of New York, in 1812. The academy was established by act of Congress in May, l802. The buildings first occupied by the academy have long since gone to decay. The mess-hall, the chapel and the south barracks were erected in 1813. The three brick edifices nearest the mess-hall were built in 1815-16, and the other three nearest the flagstaff, on the same line, in 1820-21. The north barracks were built in 1817. Of the three stone buildings west of the flagstaff, the farthest was erected in 1821, the others in 1825-1826. The hospital and hotel were built in 1828-29 and the ordnance-house in 18:30.

The annual expense of the academy is about one hundred and fifteen thousand dollars, averaging four hundred and twenty-five dollars for each cadet. The philosophical apparatus is extensive. It was brought from France, and is constructed with the latest improvements. The library is well selected, being composed of military, scientific, and historical works, amounting to nearly ten thousand volumes.

This academy was contemplated at a very early period of our history. We find notices of its necessity in the communications to Congress of General Knox, the first Secretary of War, and of General Washington, as President; and Presidents Jefferson and Madison, with others of the most eminent of our countrymen, have given it their full and earnest support. It were needless here, and at this day, to show how unfounded were the prejudices which have at various times, and for various purposes, been excited against the academy, or how substantial have been the benefits by which it has sought to repay the country for her care and support. Those curious regarding its struggles for existence, and the history of its government, are referred to the account given by the talented Mr. Hunt, in his "Letters about the Hudson," from which most of the above facts are taken.

West Point is one of the most interesting spots in the whole tract of the classic ground of America over which we have passed. The school of the country's hope, it was the residence of her old defenders. It formed one of the most important fastnesses of the American army during the eight years contest with Great Britain, and the consequence attached to it in a military point of view was evinced by the repeated, but unsuccessful, efforts of the enemy to obtain it. 'Future ages will regard as one of the most brilliant of the deeds of General Clinton, his suggestion that this point should be well fortified. At present there are to be seen the remains of Forts Putnam and Clinton, (formerly Arnold.) The latter is situated at the extreme eastern point of the military position, one hundred and sixty feet above tide-water. Fort Putnam, "stern monument of a sterner age is situated on Mount Independence, more than half a mile south-west, five hundred feet above the river. The heights in the vicinity are many of them crowned by redoubts and batteries, erected under the direction of the great Kosciusko. In August, 1780, Arnold received the command of this military station, which extended from Fishkill to Verplank's Point. On the 25th of September, he made his escape from his head-quarters, the Robinson House, two miles below West Point. His treason has had its reward. Of the three monuments which meet the eye at West Point, that at the north-eastern extremity of the works, at the projecting point forming the abrupt bend of the river, is erected to the memory of the patriot Kosciusko, who resided here. It is of white marble, consisting of a base and a short column. It was completed in 1829, by the corps of cadets at an expense of about five thousand dollars. In the vicinity of the monument is Kosciusko's garden, the place "where the Polish chieftain was accustomed to retire for study and reflection. Marks of cultivation are perceptible in the disposition of the walks and trees, and the beautiful seclusion of the spot still invites to thought and repose." Thaddeus Kosciusko, says the American Encyclopedia, was born at Lithuania, in 1756, and educated at the military school of Warsaw. After studying in France, he came to America, recommended by Franklin to Washington, to whom he was appointed an aid. In October, 1776, he was appointed an engineer, with the rank of colonel, in which capacity be fortified the camp of General Gates, in his campaign against Burgoyne, and afterwards erected the works at West Point. He was highly esteemed by both American and French officers; he was admitted a member of the Society of the Cincinnati; and he received the thanks of Congress for his services. At the close of the Revolutionary war, he returned to his native country, and was made Major-General under Poniatowski. He fought several battles with great bravery; but all his efforts were rendered useless by the follies of the Polish Diet. In April, 1794, on the breaking out of the new revolution, he was appointed to the chief command, with dictatorial powers, and he managed affairs with great address and bravery, until the 10th of October, when, overpowered and wounded, he was made prisoner and carried to St. Petersburg. On the accession of the Emperor Paul, he was released from the confinement into which Catharine had thrown him, loaded with honours, and offered employment in the Imperial service. This he declined; and when the Emperor proffered him his own sword, he said, " I no longer need a sword-I have no longer a country." In 1797, he visited the United States, and received a grant from Congress. In the latter part of his life he retired to Switzerland, where he died, October 16, 1817. His remains were taken to Cracow, and a public funeral made for him at Warsaw, where almost divine honours were paid him.

The centre monument near the flagstaff, is a cenotaph, erected by General Brown, in memory of Colonel E. D. Wood, an early and distinguished graduate of the academy, who fell in the sortie at Fort Erie in 1814. The remaining monument is the Cadets' s monument, erected in honour of deceased officers and cadets.

We cannot leave West Point without giving an account of the fortifications, subordinate to those on the west side, for the command of the river. Constitution island divides the bed of the Hudson unequally at the bend round the point, the western branch being a marshy shallow. This island, a mass of rock, was defended by batteries on a level with the water, and the glacis formed in the rock bade defiance to trenches. A heavy chain cramped into the rocks at either end, supported by buoys, stretched across the angle made by the river, and formed an effectual bar. This chain prevented the English from ascending the river in their armed ships, and the great object of the works on both sides was to protect it. Twenty pieces of heavy ordnance, discharging grape, menaced those who should attempt to cut a link, with destruction. And the roller on which the chain moved, suffered it to grow slack, thereby preventing any iron-beaked vessel from breaking it under the combined forces of wind and tide. As soon as the shock was thus broken, the chain could be immediately made tense, and the vessel must be turned aside and stranded on one or the other shore.

Cold Spring is a thriving manufacturing village, about a mile above West Point, on the opposite side of the river. The mountains in the vicinity of its romantic situation abound in iron ore. A mile from the village is the West Point Iron Foundry, one of the most extensive in the United States. It has one blast furnace producing eight hundred and fifty tons of iron annually, three air furnaces and three cupola furnaces, melting two thousand five hundred tons of iron, employing two hundred persons, and producing articles to the amount of two hundred and eighty thousand dollars annually. The largest kinds of machinery for steamboat and other purposes, are constructed here, and besides the iron ore, an inexhaustible and convenient quarry of granite has been found in the vicinity. Immediately above Cold Spring are Bull Hill, Breakneck Hill, and Beacon Hill. The second of these heights contains the rock known by the various names of the Turk's Head, Anthony's Face, and Upper Anthony's Nose. Beacon Hill is one of the highest summits of the Fishkill mountains, and to its top parties of pleasure frequently resort in the summer season, to view an extensive prospect, embracing a part of the territories of five different States. The name of this mountain appears to have been " The Grand Sachem," its less sonorous title being derived from the use to which it was put during the Revolutionary war.

Pollopel Island is situated at the northern entrance to the Highlands, six miles above West Point. It consists of a mass of rock, and rises near the centre of the river, between Breakneck Hill on the east and Butter Hill on the west.

Passing the Highlands, the prospect changes into a very agreeable contrast. From Pollopel’ s Island, the river widens and forms Newburgh Bay, an expansion five or six miles long and one mile wide. On the west side we pass first the village of Cornwall, containing two stores, several large brick yards, twenty dwellings, and about one hundred and twenty-five inhabitants. New Windsor lies at the confluence of Chamber's creek with the Hudson, two miles south of Newburgh. Here, in a mansion of an humble Dutch style of architecture, Washington had his head-quarters; but the place is chiefly remarkable as the native town of De Witt Clinton, " a great man, an elegant and profound scholar, and a practical citizen-a man of letters and the world, and a character of active worth to the present generation, and of solid and permanent advantage to posterity.'' Newburgh was originally settled by the Palatines from Germany, in 1708. In 1800 it was incorporated. The town is pleasantly situated on the bank of the river: the ground rising rapidly from the water's edge exhibits the place to great advantage from the stream, while its back part, three hundred feet high, command s a beautiful view of the river, the Highlands, the village of Fishkill opposite, and the surrounding fine country. It contains a jail, a court-house, eleven churches, an incorporated academy, a high-school, a theological seminary of the Associate Reformed Church, three banks, one hundred stores, a large wharf and storehouses, a large iron foundry and machine shop, an extensive hat factory, a large brewery, two morocco factories, two paper mills, four plaster mills, a powder mill, extensive brickyards. eight hundred and fifty dwellings, and more than six thousand inhabitants. It has an extensive commerce by steamboats and small vessels, with New York city and other places on the river. The steamboat from New York to Albany usually stops at this village. It was for some time the headquarters of the Revolutionary army, and the stone house in which General Washington resided is still standing. While here in March, 1783, the famous Newburgh letters by an anonymous author, were published, for the purpose of exciting the army to revolt. The history of this affair, the noble conduct of Washington in reference to it, is described by Dunlap in his history of New York. They were afterwards ascertained to have been written by Major Armstrong, subsequently Secretary of War. The author, says Mr. Dunlap, assumes the character of a veteran, who had suffered with those he addressed. He tells them that to be tame in their present situation would be more than weakness, and must ruin them for ever. He bids them "suspect the man who would advise to more moderation and longer forbearance." He then describes the high state in which the country has been placed by their services, and says "does this country reward you with tears of gratitude and smiles of admiration, or does she trample upon your rights, disdain your cries, and insult your distresses!" He advised them to carry their appeal from the justice to the fears of government. " Assume a bolder tone- say, that the slightest indignity from Congress must now operate like the grave, and part you from them for ever. That if peace takes place, nothing shall separate you from your arms but death : if war continues, that you will retire to some unsettled country, with Washington at your head, and mock at the distresses of government. The insidious expression of "courting the auspices and inviting the direction of their illustrious leader, was calculated to make the army believe that Washington would join them in rebellion against his country, and was certainly a bold artifice, coming, as it did, from one in constant correspondence with Gen. Gates, and attached to him both by inclination and office."

The commander-in-chief noticed the anonymous address in orders, with pointed disapprobation, and requested that the general and field officers, with a proper representation from the staff of the army, would assemble on the 15th instant, to hear the report of the committee deputed by the army to Congress. This request was seized upon, and represented in a second paper as giving sanction to the proceedings of the officers, and they were called on to act with energy. On the 15th of March, General Washington addressed the convention of officers (General Gates being chairman) in the language of truth, feeling, and affection. He overthrew all the artifices of the anonymous writer and his friends, one of the principal of whom sat in the chair. Washington noticed the advice to mark for suspicion the man who should recommend moderation. He feelingly spoke of his own constant attention, from the commencement of the war, to the wants and sufferings of the army, and then pointed out the dreadful consequences of following the advice of the anonymous writer, either to draw their swords against their country or retire, if war continues, from the defence of all they hold dear. He calls to mind the scenes in which they had acted together, and pledges himself to the utmost exertion for obtaining justice to his fellows in arms. He requests them to rely on the promise of Congress. He said, " I conjure you, in the name of our common country, as you value your own sacred honour, as you respect the rights of humanity, to express your utmost horror and detestation of the man who wishes, under any specious pretences, to overturn the liberties of your country: and who wickedly attempts to open the flood-gates of civil discord, and deluge our rising empire in blood.

The convention resolved, unanimously, among other things, that, "the army have unshaken confidence in Congress, and view with abhorrence, and reject with disdain, the infamous propositions contained in a late anonymous address to the officers of the army."

Fishkill Landing, opposite Newburgh, contains three churches, eight or ten stores, and eight or nine hundred inhabitants. Matteawan is a celebrated manufacturing village on the Fishkill, a mile and a half east of the landing. Glen-ham, noted for its woollen cloths, is three miles distant; and six miles from the landing, is Fishkill, with its population of eleven thousand. This village was also for a time, the headquarters of the Revolutionary army, and a church is still shown in which Enoch Crosby, the spy, was confined for a time: his escape from captivity, it may be remembered, is described by Cooper in his romance of " The Spy," under the name of Harvey Birch.

Wappinger's Creek, an important mill stream, empties into the Hudson at the steamboat landing of New Hamburgh, six miles north of Newburgh, on the east side of the river. This landing is connected by a steamboat ferry with that of Hampton, nearly opposite. On the west side of the river, a mile or two north, is the village of Marlborough, drained by Old Man's Kill. It contains three churches, eight stores, two woollen factories, one paper mill, seven schools, and nearly three thousand inhabitants. Barnegat, on the east side of the river, is celebrated for the manufacture of large quantities of lime. A convenient steamboat landing is Milton,, nine miles above Newburgh. The village itself stands a mile and a half back from the river.

Poughkeepsie was organized in 1788, and incorporated in 1801: its name is said to have been derived from the Indian word apokeepsing, safe harbour. Fall Creek enters Hudson river at the village, by a succession of cascades, with a fall in the whole of more than one hundred and sixty feet. The town contains fifty- four stores, eight lumber yards, three cotton factories with more than four thousand spindles, four flouring mills, two grist mills, one saw mill, two tanneries, one brewery, two potteries, three printing offices, two weekly newspapers and two periodicals, two academies with two hundred and ninety students, fourteen schools with eleven hundred scholars. The population numbers ten thousand. The village is one of the handsomest and most flourishing in the State, situated about midway between New York city and Albany, on an elevated plain, two hundred feet above the level of the river, from which it is partly concealed from the view by the abrupt bank. The town is laid out with great skill, containing seventy-nine streets, the principal of which are well paved with convenient side walks. Many of the edifices are remarkable for beauty, and very few of them would dishonour a greater city. Besides the court-house and jail, the collegiate school, on College hill, half a mile northeast of the compact part of the village, is worthy of attention. This is a well established and flourishing institution, furnished with an extensive gymnasium, and conducted on philosophical principles. The edifice is one hundred and fifteen feet long and thirty-five feet wide, after the model of the Parthenon at Athens. Besides this, the town contains four seminaries for young ladies, Duchess Academy, three banks, two whaling companies with a total capital of four hundred thousand dollars, two market-houses, a lyceum, fourteen churches, ninety-two stores, and a large variety of manufacturing and mechanic establishments. The village is supplied with water from the vicinity brought into a reservoir, and distributed through the streets at an expense of about thirty thousand dollars. The convention of the State of New York adopted the Constitution of the United States at this place in 1788, and previously the State legislature frequently assembled at this " the queen village of the empire State."

The landing opposite Poughkeepsie is in the town of New Paltz, which gives it its name. Crum Elbow is the name given to the turn in the river four miles above Poughkeepsie. The fine country-seat of Mr. Langdon, formerly owned by the celebrated Doctor David Hosack, is conspicuous among the splendid country residences near Hyde Park Landing, a small settlement of sixty houses, on the east side of the river, eighty miles from New York. The late Governor Morgan Lewis’s residence at Staatsburgh, five miles north of Hyde Park, is also worthy of notice. On the opposite side of the river is Pelham, a small landing, two miles south of Esopus Meadows, the name given to a number of extensive marshes, covered with water at high tide. Near these is Esopus lighthouse.

Ninety miles from New York, on the east bank of the river, is Rhinebeck Landing, around which are a number of beautiful country residences overlooking the Hudson. Two miles east from this is the village of Rhinebeck, a part of whose original settlers came from the Rhine, and whose inhabitants still retain many marks of their origin.

Roundout, eighty-nine miles from New York, is a thriving town of fifteen hundred inhabitants, on the west side of the river, at the mouth of a large stream of the same name, where the United States government has erected a lighthouse. Two miles above Roundout, at Eddyville, is the terminus of the Delaware and Hudson canal, which is one hundred and eight miles in length, and connects by a railroad sixteen miles long, with the great anthracite region of Pennsylvania.

A mile further north is the village of Kingston, which was incorporated in l8O5, and contains more than three hundred buildings and two thousand five hundred inhabitants. It was early settled by the Dutch and called Esopus. Here General Tryon, the tory, destroyed the public stores and wantonly laid in ashes one of the largest places in the province of New York. Every house in the town was burned, except one in which Mrs. Hamersley resided. A short time before, a convention met in Kingston, and formed the first constitution of the State of New York, which was adopted on the 20th of April, 1777. During the Revolutionary war, a number of tories were here executed for treason. Judge Hasbrouck, who was at that time a lad, gives an account of the handing of two of them on the first hill from the landing.

From Rhinebeck Landing to Barrytown or Lower Red Hood Landing is seven miles. Here the Catskill Mountain House, on the range of the Catskills, may be seen in the west in clear weather, two thousand two hundred feet above the Hudson, and twelve miles or more distant. Three miles further is Tivoli or Upper Red Hook Landing, in the midst of a number of beautiful private residences.

Saugerties or Ulster, is situated on the west side of the river, one hundred and one miles from New York. Great advantage has been taken of a waterfall on the Esopus creek, which here enters the Hudson. It has made of Sauterties a large manufacturing town, with more than three hundred houses and two thousand inhabitants. The steamboats usually touch at Malden, or Bristol, a mile and a half north of the town.

East and West Camp are German settlements, on the opposite banks of the Hudson, one hundred and seven miles from New York.

Catskill takes its name from a large creek which flows through it, and empties into the Hudson at that place, one hundred and eleven miles from New York. It is on the west bank of the river, some thirty-three miles from Albany, and contains two thousand eight hundred inhabitants, four hundred dwelling-houses, a court-house, a jail, two banks, five churches, and several public houses. It is connected by a ferry with Oak Hill, a small settlement on the opposite side of the river. About this portion of the river, the Catskill mountains, which are seen for many miles along the Hudson, assume a majestic and sublime appearance. The highest elevation, twelve miles distant from the river, is three thousand seven hundred and eighteen feet in height. The village, which was formerly only known to business men, has now become quite a resort for people of fashion, who come here on their way to the Pine Orchard and the Mountain House. The prospect from the rock on which this hotel in air has been erected, is as extensive and varied as from any other point in the United States. From it the eye roves in endless gratification over farms, villages, towns, and cities, stretching between the Green Mountains on the north and the Highlands. The green isles and the thousand sheets of canvass which adorn the Hudson, are all distinctly visible, in a clear atmosphere for sixty miles. When the scene is gradually unfolded at daybreak, the effect is that of enchantment It is not uncommon, at this place, to witness storms of snow and rain in their seasons, midway the mountain, while all is clear and serene on its summit. The following extract is taken from a glowing account by Miss Martineau. "After tea I went out on the platform in front of the house, having been warned not to go too near the edge, so as to fall an unmeasured depth into the forest below. I sat upon the edge as a security against stepping over unawares. The stars were bright overhead and had conquered half the sky, giving promise of what we ardently desired, a fine morrow. Over the other half, the mass of thunder clouds was, I suppose, heaped together, for I could at first discern nothing of the champaign which I knew must be stretched below. Suddenly, and from that moment incessantly, gushes of red lightning poured out from the cloudy canopy, revealing not merelv the horizon, but the course of the river in all its windings through the valley. The thread of the river thus illuminated looked like a flash of lightning caught by a strong hand and laid along in the valley. All the principal features of the landscape might, no doubt, have been discerned by this sulphurous light: but my whole attention was absorbed by the river, which seemed to come out of the darkness like an apparition at the summons of my impatient will. It could be borne only for a short time; this dazzling, bewildering alternation of glare and blackness, of vast reality and nothingness. I was soon glad to draw back from the precipice and seek the candlelight within.

"The next day was Sunday. I shall never forget, if I live to a hundred, how the world lay at my feet one Sunday morning. I rose very early, and looked abroad from my window, two stories above the platform. A dense fog, exactly level with my eyes, as it appeared, roofed in the whole plain of the earth; a dusky firmament in which the stars had hidden themselves for the day. Such is the account which an antediluvian spectator would probably have given of it. This solid firmament had spaces in it, however, through which gushes of sunlight were poured, lighting up the spires of white churches, and clusters of farm buildings too small to be otherwise distinguished ; and especially the river, with its sloops floating like motes in the sunbeam. The firmament rose and melted, or parted off into the likeness of snowy sky mountains, and left the cool Sabbath to brood brightly over the land. What human interest sanctifies a bird's eye view! I suppose this its peculiar charm, for its charm is found to deepen in proportion to the growth of mind. To an infant, a champaign of a hundred miles is not so much as a yard square of gay carpet.. To the rustic it is less bewitching than a paddock with two cows. To the philosopher, what is it not! As he casts his eye over its glittering towns, its scattered hamlets, its secluded homes, its mountain ranges, church spires, and untrodden forests, it is a picture of life ; an epitome of the human universe; the complete volume of moral philosophy, for which he has sought in vain in all libraries. On the left horizon are the Green mountains of Vermont, and at the right extremity sparkles the Atlantic. Beneath lies the forest where the deer are hiding and the birds rejoicing in song. Beyond the river he sees spread the rich plains of Connecticut; there where a blue expanse lies beyond the triple range of hills, are the churches of religious Massachusetts, sending up their Sabbath psalms ; praise which he is too high to hear, while God is not."

Much trade is carried on at the important city of Hudson, one hundred and sixteen miles from New York, on the east side of the river. It is twenty-eight miles from West Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and is connected with it by a railroad, which goes two miles further to connect with the Massachusetts Great Western Railroad. This communication makes a route of three hundred miles from Boston to New York, through one of the most delightful and characteristic sections of our country. The city was founded in 1783, by some of the enterprising sons of New England. In three years the population increased from twenty to fifteen hundred. As early as 1795, Mr. Ashbel Stoddard removed from Connecticut and established a weekly paper, the Hudson Gazette. The enterprising inhabitants soon engaged in the West India trade, until the French Revolution and the wars which followed it, when they embarked their vessels in the carrying trade, which was very lucrative on account of the great demand for neutral vessels, and the hire prices of freight. The British orders in council and the French decrees, however, soon swept many of the vessels from their owners. The commercial troubles and war which followed, destroyed the prosperity of the town by producing multiplied embarrassments and failures. But it has gone on steadily increasing under all circumstances, and now contains nearly six thousand inhabitants and more than eight hundred houses Among the many schools, the Hudson Academy and the Hudson Female Seminary deserve especial notice. Two of the most remarkable features of the town are the Franklin Library Association, with its large library and philosophical apparatus, and the Hudson Lunatic Asylum. A chartered aqueduct company supplies the city with pure and wholesome water, brought in iron pipes from a spring two miles distant. Athens, on the opposite side of the river from Hudson, is a chartered village containing about thirteen hundred inhabitants.

Kinderhook creek enters the Hudson on the east side, nearly opposite to Four Mile Point, and one hundred and twenty miles from New York.

Coxsackie Landings are on the west side of the river, about eight miles above Hudson. They contain altogether about two hundred houses and twelve hundred inhabitants. The village of Coxsackie itself is about a mile west of the 1anding, and contains five hundred inhabitants.

Stuyvesant is a pleasant town on the east side of the river. which has the same landing as Kinderhook. a village whose name is known throughout our land as the birthplace of one of our greatest statesmen, Martin Van Buren. The present residence of the ex-president is a pleasant seat, about two miles south of the village. The house in which he was born is situated about sixty rods east of the central part of the village' near the banks of the creek. It was at that time occupied as a tavern by his father, Abraham Van Buren, and the town meetings of ancient days were wont to assemble within its walls. On a beam in the kitchen, rudely cut with a penknife, is a memento of the ex-president's boyhood, the letters M. V. B.

Five miles north from Kinderhook Landing is the village of New Baltimore, a place of considerable trades containing about fifty dwellings and four hundred inhabitants. Thence to Coeyman's on the west side of the river, is a distance of some two miles. The town, which is at the junction of Coeyman's creek with the Hudson, and contains one hundred and fifty dwellings, is chiefly remarkable for its proximity to Barren Island. 'This place, the southern boundary of the ancient colony or manor of Renssalaerwyck, was fortified and garrisoned by one of the early Patroons in 1644. As the port of the colony, all traders were here obliged to stop and learn the terms on which they might proceed. It completely commands the channel of the river, and was well settled for the purpose to which its old-fashioned owner applied it. Castleton, four miles, and the Overslaugh, three miles from Albany, mark a number of bars or flats which have. much impeded the navigation. The attention of the general government has recently been directed to their removal.

Greenbush is opposite the south part of the city of Albany, and is connected with it by ferries. The depot and buildings attached to the Boston railroad may be seen here, and from this place to Troy, six miles further up the river, a railroad is in progress of construction.

Albany is the termination of our voyage. The seat of government of the Empire State, venerable for its antiquity, respectable for the great men it has produced, and very remarkable for the prodigious influence which its political coteries have exercised on the destinies of this country, this city cannot fail to present many points of attraction to the inquisitive traveller. A visit to the State-house will afford a rich treat to the lover of history and the fine arts, as it is the depository of the archives of the State, and of several valuable portraits of men distinguished in its past history.

Having arrived at the end of our voyage it only remains for us to bid farewell to our readers, wishing them all manner of prosperity, and many pleasant voyages on the noble Hudson.

 

 

THE END.

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